Arctic Governance Web Bibliography

The Arctic Portal 
Arctic Portal is an endorsed International Polar Year project lead by Iceland’s Senior Arctic Official in consultation with other members of the Arctic Council.

Michael Byers on the Arctic

Dr. Michael Byers holds the Canada Research Chair in Global Politics and International Law at the University of British Columbia. He is the author of Who Owns the Arctic? Understanding Sovereignty Disputes in the North (2009).

Barents Oberver 

Cross-border news from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.

Sputnik International

Nunatsiaq News

Nunatsiaq News, published in Nunavut, serves Canada’s northern territories.

Arctic Council (1996) 
High-level, intergovernmental forum for the eight Arctic nations and Arctic Aboriginal peoples.

University of the Arctic 

UArctic is an international cooperative network based in the circumpolar region, consisting of universities, colleges and other organizations with an interest in promoting education and research in the North.

Centre for the North, Conference Board of Canada
Centre for the North is to work with Aboriginal leaders, businesses, governments, communities, educational institutions, and other organizations to achieve a shared vision of sustainable prosperity in the North.

The Arctic Governance Project
Joins preeminent researchers, indigenous leaders, and members of the policy community to frame critical questions and issues of governance in the Arctic and devise innovative responses for a sustainable future.

Canada – Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Canada’s Arctic Foreign Policy (April 2019)

Canada’s Northern Strategy (2009)

Northern Dimension of Canada’s Foreign Policy (2000)

Canada – Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami 
An Integrated Arctic Strategy (January 2008) (Written to inform the International Dimensions of Canada’s Northern Strategy.)

United States 
U.S. Arctic Policy (2019) 
Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs (OPA) 

OPA is responsible for formulating and implementing U.S. policy on international issues concerning the oceans, the Arctic, and Antarctica. Under the Undersecretary for Democracy and Global Affairs, U.S. Department of State.

Russian Arctic Strategy (12 May 2009) – English document not found

Denmark Arctic Strategy (May 2008) – English document not found 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
High North Strategy (December 2006) 
High North

Inuit Circumpolar Council
Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Arctic Sovereignty (April 2009)

European Union and the Arctic Region 

European Union, Norway, Iceland and the Russian Federation Northern Dimensions (1999)
Iceland’s Arctic Strategy (2010)

Permanent Participants, Arctic Council 

Arctic Council Indigenous Peoples Secretariat

This is the support Secretariat for the International Indigenous Peoples’ Organizations that are Permanent Participants to the Arctic Council .
Saami Council (1956)
Inuit Circumpolar Council (1977)
Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (1991)
Aleut International Association (1998)
Gwich’in Council International (1999)
Arctic Athabaskan Council (2000)

Inuit in Canada
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
Makivik Corporation
Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated 

Environmental Knowledge for Change, GRID Arendal, Norway (1989) –
In 1989 the Norwegian Government established this collaborating center with the United Nations Environment Programme to communicate environmental information to policy makers. Based in Arendal, Norway with offices in Ottawa and Stockholm.

World Wildlife Fund (1961) 
WWF’s mission is to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment, and build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature. The secretariat is located in Switzerland.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

Canadian Polar Commission, Government of Canada (1991)
To monitor, promote, and disseminate knowledge of the polar regions; contribute to awareness of polar science in Canada; enhance Canada’s international profile as a circumpolar nation; recommend polar science policy to government.


Brings together scientists and managers in the natural, human health and social sciences with partners from Inuit organizations, northern communities, federal and provincial agencies to study the impacts of climate change in Arctic Canada.

Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary 

To advance the study of the North American and circumpolar Arctic through the natural and social sciences, the arts and humanities and to acquire, preserve and disseminate info on physical, environmental and social conditions in the North.

United States
U.S. Arctic Research Commission (1984)
To develop and recommend an integrated national Arctic research policy and assist in establishing a national Arctic research program plan to implement the policy.

Arctic Assessment, The US Geological Survey, U.S. Government

Research on petroleum resources in the Arctic.

Arctic Program, (NOAA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provides Arctic information and a set of reputable indicators that describe the present state of the Arctic ecosystem and climate.

The Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S.
A nonprofit member consortium of educational and scientific institutions that have a substantial commitment to arctic research.