University of Washington

Arctic Foreign Policy & Legal Instruments

Arctic Indigenous Foreign Policies
Inuit Circumpolar Council. (28 April 2011). Circumpolar Inuit declaration on resource development principles in Inuit Nunaat.

Inuit Circumpolar Council. (2009). Circumpolar Inuit declaration on sovereignty in the Arctic.

Arctic Marine Assessments & Policies
Arctic Council. (2009)Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report. (First comprehensive assessment of Arctic marine shipping.)

Arctic Council. (24 November 2004). Arctic Marine Strategic Plan. (Arctic Council strategies for protecting the Arctic marine environment).

Icelandic Government. (March 2007). Breaking the Ice: Arctic Development and Maritime Transport. (Report to inform the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report.)

International Polar Year Project #166. (2007-08). Sea Ice Knowledge and Use (SIKU): Assessing Arctic Environmental and Social Change.

Inuit Circumpolar Council. (March 2008). The Sea Ice is Our Highway: An Inuit Perspective on Transportation in the Arctic. (Report to inform the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report.)

Library of Parliament, Canada. (21 July 2011). Arctic Marine and Intermodal Infrastructure: Challenges and the Government of Canada's Response.

Parliament of Canada. (24 October 2008). The Arctic: Transportation, Infrastructure and Communication (Report to Parliament)

Arctic Nation-State Foreign Policies
Canada. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. (2010). Statement on Canada’s Arctic foreign policy: Exercising sovereignty and promoting Canada’s northern strategy abroad.

Denmark. (24 August 2011). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark; Department of Foreign Affairs, Greenland; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Faroe Islands. Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands:Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011–2020.

Finland. Ministry for Foreign Affairs. (August 2010). Finland’s strategy for the Arctic region.

Iceland. Ministry for Foreign Affairs (28 March 2011). A parliamentary resolution on Iceland’s Arctic policy.

Norway. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (12 March 2009). New building blocks in the north: The next step in the Government’s high north strategy.

Russia. (18 September 2008). The Russian Federation’s main state policy in the Arctic until 2020 and beyond (Osnovy gosudarstvennoi politiki Rossiisky Federatsii v Arktike na period do 2020 goda i dal’neishuyu perspektivu.). Ratified 18 September 2008.

Sweden. Ministry for Foreign Affairs. (12 May 2011). Sweden’s strategy for the Arctic region.

United States. National security Presidential directive and homeland security, Presidential directive. (9 January 2009). Arctic region policy (NSPD-66 / HSPD-25).

Legal Instruments
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

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