- B.A. 1967 History, Princeton University.
- M.A. 1969 Soviet Studies, Harvard University.
- Ph.D. 1975 Political Science, Harvard University.
Teaching Specializations: NATO/Warsaw pact relations; post-Cold War security issues; political economy of post-Cold War era
Sweden and Germany, 1982; Eastern Europe, summer 1970; Western Europe, Summers 1964 and 1965.
- "Protection from One's Friends: The Disintegration of the Warsaw Pact," in: Soviet Strategy and New Military Thinking, ed. Derek Leebaert and Timothy Dickson. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
- "The Security Policies of the Former Warsaw Pact States: Deconstruction and Reconstruction," in: Postcommunist Eastern Europe, ed. Andrew A. Michta and Ilya Prizel. St. Martins, 1992.
- "The Warsaw Pact," Yearbook on International Communist Affairs, 1990. Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1991.
- "The Post-Soviet Military and the Future of Europe," in: The Soviet Military Factor in a Changing World, ed. Susan Clark. Westview, 1991.
- "The Future of Soviet-East European Political Relations," in: The USSR and Central Europe, ed. Richard F. Staar. New York: St. Martins, 1991.