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Power, Money and the State: Examining Economic Policy through the Ages
Public-Private Partnerships in Kazakhstan's Transportation Sector
Ryan Dalrymple, REECAS, UW
Russia's Forest Sector and International Trade in Forest Products: Export Taxes on Roundwood, Priority Investment Projects, and WTO Accession
John Simeone, REECAS / CINTRAFOR, UW
Building Stalinism: The Institutional Origins of Soviet State Arbitration
Will Murg, Political Science Department, UW
This report analyzes the Government of Kazakhstan’s Public-Private Partnership framework using several specific cases from cities in Kazakhstan. The country’s relatively sparse population and its remote location present unique challenges that make traditional financing mechanisms insufficient. The Kazakhstani government therefore has been looking for creative ways to invest in economic and social development. Public-private partnerships were introduced as a potential way to cooperate with the private sector and share risks, mainly financial risk, in social and infrastructure development, and attract international investment. As a result, The government created the Kazakhstan Public-Private Partnership Center (The Center of PPP), the purpose of which is to develop a framework to support PPPs in Kazakhstan. The PPP agency’s framework is still relatively underdeveloped. This report analyzes to support the agency’s efforts to improve and develop this framework.
To read the full paper click here.
It is no surprise that the territory of the Russian Federation is vast and known to contain huge amounts of natural resources. Russia was the world’s largest exporter of natural resources in 2008, with exports of USD 341.2 billion, which represented 9.1 percent of world natural resources trade (WTO 2010). Whereas some of Russia’s natural resource bounty is distributed unevenly across its nine time zones, forested ecosystems constitute 46.6% of Russian territory with a total of 23% of global forests contained within the Russian Federation –more than the combined forest area of Canada and Brazil. Despite the fact that Russia contains the largest area of natural forests in the world, its current share in the trade of world forest products is below 4 percent. “Forests occupy over half of the land of the country, but the share of the forest sector in the 2010 gross domestic product (GDP) was only 1.3 percent; in industrial production, 3.7 percent; in employment, 1 percent; and in export revenue, 2.4 percent” (UN FAO 2012). Beginning in 2007, the Russian government implemented a series of policies, including export tariffs on roundwood, in order to develop a more competitive timber-processing sector and increase the production and exports of value-added forest products. Have these policies been effective in the short-term? How might these trends change now that Russia just became a member of the World Trade Organization in August 2012? How might WTO entry affect Russian roundwood exports to China? What role does Russian timber play in the new US and EU regulations on illegal timber sourcing?
To read the full paper click here.
State mediation of economic disputes in the USSR began with the creation of a set of local arbitration commissions - developed and staffed by lawyers trained during the Imperial era - as part of the New Economic Policy. The success of these localized institutions subsequently provided a basis for the establishment in 1931 of State Arbitration (государственный арбитраж) - an institution which in the 1990s would be converted into the Russian commercial court system. Utilizing materials from the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the City Archive of Saint Petersburg, and the State Library of Russia - this paper explores the origins and initial development of "Arbitrazh" in the 1930s in order to shed light on new complexities/contradictions in the development of Stalinist economic policy.
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