Arctic Sovereignty Annotated Bibliography

The Arctic Sovereignty bibliography is organized by topic and, within each topic, the articles and books are organized chronologically. Many of the articles are available on IngentaConnect, accessible by University of Washington faculty and students. The page was initially prepared by the course instructors and maintained and updated by the 2009 Arctic Sovereignty Research Team.

Climate Change

Natural Resources

Arctic Shipping
Tourism

Northern Dimension of Foreign Policy
International
Canada
United States
Norway
European Union
Russia

Law of the Sea
International
Canadian
United States

Inuit Policy


Climate Change

2004 - Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, project by the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee, Cambridge University Press, 2004. (The report that startled the world regarding the impact of climate change on the Arctic in particular. This is the "plain language guide" to the report for policymakers and the general public, 140 pgs.) http://www.acia.uaf.edu/

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Natural Resources in the Arctic and the Race for Ownership / Access

2008 - Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, US Geological Survey, US Department of the Interior, (To improve understanding of petroleum resources in the Arctic. The USGS is the scientific agency of the US government that studies, in part, natural resources. Arctic assessment is within its Energy Resources Program. See 2008 "Fact Sheet" and slide presentation.)
http://energy.usgs.gov/arctic/

2008 - Zellen, Barry, "As Climate Change Thins Polar Ice, a New Race for Arctic Resources Begins," Strategic Insights, Center for Contemporary Conflict, February 2008.
http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/2008/Feb/zellenFeb08.asp

2005 - Nordquist, Myron, John Norton Moore and Alexandar Skaridov, eds. International Energy Policy, the Arctic and the Law of the Sea, Center for Oceans Law and Policy, 2005. (Fantastic document from the 28th Annual Conference of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy regarding natural resources and shipping in the Arctic.)
http://www.brill.nl/Default.aspx?partid=75&pid=23908

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Arctic Shipping and the Northwest Passage / Northern Sea Route

2008 - "Canadian Arctic Sovereignty: Time to Take Yes for an Answer on the Northwest Passage," by Franklyn Griffiths, pre-released chapter in Northern Exposure: Peoples, Powers and Prospects for Canada's North, edited by Frances Abele, Thomas J. Courchene, F. Leslie Seidle and France St-Hilaire, Institute of Research on Public Policy, Ottawa, Canada, September 2008.
http://www.irpp.org/research/re_aots.asp

2007 - "The Law of the Sea Convention ad the Northwest Passage," by James Kraska, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Volume 22, Number 2, 2007, pp. 257-282(26), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. (Kraska is Oceans Policy Adviser, Joint Chiefs of Staff, The Pentagon, Washington, DC. This article suggests that Canada can best achieve widespread global support for managing its maritime Arctic by acknowledging that the passage constitutes an international strait and then working through the International Maritime Organization to develop a comprehensive package of internationally accepted regulations.)
IngentaConnect - http://www.ingentaconnect.com

1959-2006 - Breaking the Ice: Canada and the Northwest Passage, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Digital Archives, 2006. (History with television and radio clips. Truly brings the history alive.)
http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-73-2349/politics_economy/northwest_passage/

1987 - Griffiths, Franklyn, editor, Politics of the Northwest Passage, Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1987. (Excellent historic overview providing the 20-year lead up to the voyage of the US Polar Sea in 1986.)

Tourism

2007 - Polar Tourism: Research Directions for Current Realities and Future Possibilities, special edition, Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 4, Nos. 2-3, 2007, including, "Climate Change, Marine Tourism and Sustainability in the Canadian Arctic: Contributions from Systems and Complexity Approaches," "Working Towards Policy Creation for Cruise Ship Tourism in Parks and Protected Areas of Nunavut," "The Commencement of Regular Arctic Cruise Ship Tourism: Wilhelm Bade and the 'Nordische Hochseefischerei Gesellschaft' of 1892/1893," and "Wildlife Tourist Archetypes: Are All Polar Bear Viewers in Churchill, Manitoba Ecotourists?," by Raynald Harvey Lemelin and Bryan Smale.
IngentaConnect - http://www.ingentaconnect.com

2006 - "Sustainable Cruise Tourism in Arctic Canada: An Integrated Coastal Management Approach," by Emma J. Stewart and Dianne Draper, Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 77-88, 2006.
IngentaConnect - http://www.ingentaconnect.com

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Northern Dimensions of Foreign Policy

International

May 2008 - The Ilulissat Declaration, Arctic Ocean Conference, Ilulissat, Greenland, 27-29 May 2008.
OceanLaw.org - http://www.oceanlaw.org/ (see recent articles, right column)

2008 - "Warm Waters and Cold Shoulders: Jostling for Jurisdiction in Polar Oceans," by Rosemary Rayfuse, University of New South Wales Faculty of Law Research Series, 2008. (Rayfuse challenges the legal rights of the five Arctic nations that signed the Ilulissat Declaration.)
University of South Wales Faculty of Law Research Series Articles - http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/UNSWLRS/2008/

Canada

2008 - "Rethinking the Arctic: A New Agenda for Canada and the United States," Donald McRae, Canada-US Project, Blueprint for a Canada-US Engagement, sponsored by Carleton University, 2008.
Centre for Trade Policy and Law, Canada-US Project, Carleton University - http://www.carleton.ca/ctpl/training/Canada-USProject.html

2008 - "Canada and the Changing International Arctic: At the Crossroads of Cooperation and Conflict," by Rob Huebert, pre-released chapter in Northern Exposure: Peoples, Powers and Prospects for Canada's North, edited by Frances Abele, Thomas J. Courchene, F. Leslie Seidle and France St-Hilaire, Institute for Research on Public Policy, Ottawa, Canada, September 2008.
http://www.irpp.org/research/re_aots.asp

2008 - Canada's Arctic Interests and Responsibilities, by Franklyn Griffiths, the Honourable Paul Okalik, Suzanne Lalonde, Rob Huebert, Whitney Lackenbauer, Behind the Headlines, Canadian International Council, Foreign Policy Conference of the Canadian International Council, Toronto, June 20-21, 2008.
http://www.igloo.org/canadianinternational/

2008 - Arctic Front: Defending Canada in the Far North, by Ken S. Coates, P. Whitney Lackenbauer, William R. Morrison and Greg Poelzer." ("Arctic Front confronts Canada's longstanding neglect of the Far North and outlines what needs to be done to protect our national interest." - publisher)

2006 - Canadian Arctic Sovereignty, by Matthew Carnaghan and Allison Goody, Political and Social Affairs Division, Library of Parliament, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, 26 January 2006. ("To provide information for Committees, Members of Senate and the House of Commons." - site)
http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/prb0561-e.htm

2002 - European Union-Canada Cooperation on Northern Issues: A Progress Report, Canada and the Circumpolar World, Foreign Affairs and International Relations Canada, 2008.
http://www.international.gc.ca/polar-polaire/partners-partenaires.aspx?lang=en#linkA

2000 - The Northern Dimensions of Canada's Foreign Policy, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, prepared by the Communications Bureau, 2000. (A framework to promote the extension of Canada's interest, values and responsibilities in the North.)
http://www.international.gc.ca/polar-polaire/ndfp-vnpe2.aspx?lang=en

1997 - Canada and the Circumpolar World: Meeting the Challenges of Cooperation into the Twenty-first Century, Report of the House of Commons Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Bill Graham, M.P., Chair, April 1997.
http://www.parl.gc.ca/35/Archives/committees352/fore/reports/07_1997-04/seventhe.html

1997 - Griffiths, Franklyn. "Environment in the U.S. Security Debate the Case of the Missing Arctic Waters," Washington: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1997.
http://www.earthscape.org/p1/ecs24/

1992 - Griffiths, Franklyn, editor, Arctic Alternatives: Civility or Militarism in the Circumpolar North, Toronto: Science for Peace, 1992. ("The conceptual and practical problems that must be resolved if the peoples of the Arctic countries are to develop their region away form militarism and towards civility." - website)
http://books.google.com/books?id=hC4gEsSR1JwC&dq=Arctic+Alternatives:+Civility+of+Militarism+in+the+Circumpolar+North&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0

1988 - Griffiths, Franklyn. The Arctic as an International Political Region, Toronto: Science for Peace, 1988.

1964 - "New Perspective on the North," by Trevor Lloyd, Foreign Affairs, January 1964. (Reexamination of the premises of the Arctic as a focus of military strategy rather than cooperative inquiry.)

United States

2008 - US Arctic Policy, Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs, Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs, US Department of State. (Margaret Hayes, Director of the Office of Oceans Affairs, announced in Alaska in August 2008 that a comprehensive report on US Arctic Policy would be released in the fall. - NF)
http://www.state.gov/g/oes/ocns/arc/

2008 - "Arctic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming," Foreign Affairs, by Scott G. Borgerson, March/April 2008.
IngentaConnect - http://www.ingentaconnect.com

1981 - "The Arctic: Last Unmanaged Frontier," by Lincoln P. Bloomfield, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 60, No. 1, Fall 1981. (Discussion of how the Arctic is the only region left that is not included in existing or prospective international agreements. Bloomfield is a political scientist.)

Norway

2006 - The Norwegian Government's High North Strategy, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, High North, 2008.
http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/ud/selected-topics/High-North.html?id=1154

European Union

November 2008 - The European Union and the Arctic Region, Maritime Policy Actions, Maritime Affairs, European Commission, Brussels, 20 November 2008. (The paper states the European Union’s interests in the Arctic and constitutes the first steps in the EU creating an Arctic policy. - NF)
http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/arctic_overview_en.html

June 2008 - The European Union and the Arctic: Policies and Actions, by Adele Airoldi, report for the Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen 2008. (The aim of the report was to provide an overview on EU involvements in the Arctic and to identify areas for co-operation. It would provide the foundation for the above policy paper. - NF)
http://www.norden.org/conference.arctic2008/report_on_eu_policies.asp

Russia

1988 - "The Soviet North," Northern Perspectives, Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, Vol. 16, No. 4, July-August 1988. (Articles by a number of authors addressing the emergence of a circumpolar giant, Soviet-Canadian cooperation, Soviet Arctic marine transportation, sovereignty in the high seas.)
http://www.carc.org/

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Legal Process - Law of the Sea

International

1982 - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982.
http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_convention.htm

2008 - Maritime jurisdiction and boundaries in the Arctic region, Boundary Resources, International Boundaries Research Institute, Durham University. (In response to numerous enquiries relating to maritime jurisdiction in the Arctic, IBRU has prepared a map and a set of briefing notes on the current state of play in the region. The map identifies known claims and agreed boundaries, plus potential areas that might be claimed in the future.)
http://www.dur.ac.uk/ibru/resources/arctic/

2008 - "The Legal Framework and Recent Developments Regarding the Continental Shelf Beyond the 200 Nautical Miles in the Arctic Ocean," by Ted L. McDorman, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, presented at a conference in Oslo, 2008.

Canada

2008 - "Canada’s Arctic Continental Shelf Extension: Debunking Myths," Policy Options, September 2008. (Elizabeth Riddell-Dixon is a professor of international relations in the Department of Political Science at the U niversity of Western Ontario. Adapted from "Canada and Arctic Politics: The Continental Shelf Extension," Ocean Development and International Law, forthcoming.)
http://www.irpp.org/po/ (September 2008 issue)

2007 - Canada’s Legal Claims Over Arctic Territory and Waters, Robert Dufresne, Law and Government Division, Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of Parliament, Canada. (Includes sovereignty over Arctic islands, Hans Island, maritime zones, Northwest Passage.)
Library of Parliament Research Publications - http://www.parl.gc.ca/common/library_prb.asp

United States

2008 - "The United States and Law of the Sea Convention," by John B. Bellinger, III, Legal Adviser, Remarks at the Law of the Sea Institute, Berkeley, California, November 3, 2008.
http://www.state.gov/s/l/rls/111587.htm

"Primer on Oceans Jurisdictions: Drawing a Line in the Water," National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (This primer explains the ocean jurisdiction of the United States under international law, as well as the domestic distinction between federal and state waters. - Aqua KE Government Documents)
http://www.govdocs.aquake.org/cgi/reprint/2007/1114/11140020.pdf

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Inuit Policy

January 2008 - An Integrated Arctic Strategy, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami.
http://www.itk.ca/document-library

2008 - "Toward a Post-Arctic World," Barry Zellen, working paper.

2008 - Zellen, Barry, Breaking the Ice: From Land Claims to Tribal Sovereignty in the Arctic. (Comparative study of the movement for native land claims and indigenous rights in Alaska and the Western Arctic, and the resulting transformation in domestic politics as the indigenous peoples of the North gained an increasingly prominent role in the governance of their homeland.)

2002 - "Inuit, Climate Change, Sovereignty, and Security in the Canadian Arctic," by Sheila Watt-Cloutier, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, 2002.
Inuit Circumpolar Conference - http://www.inuitcircumpolar.com

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Last updated - January 2009